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Global Set Implicit Arguments.
Global Generalizable All Variables.
(* turn this on to enforce strict bulleting and braces (every tactic must apply
to a single goal) *)
Global Set Default Goal Selector "!".
Global Set Default Proof Using "Type".

Model of sequential procedures with mutable state.

In our labs, we want to reason about procedures that have side-effects, such as modifying the contents of memory or writing to disk. This is in contrast to the kinds of procedures that one can naturally write in Coq's Gallina language, which are purely functional; they have no built-in notion of mutable state.
To reason about procedures that manipulate mutable state, we need to construct an explicit Coq model of:
Our procedures will eventually be extracted from Coq into Haskell, and execute as Haskell programs (by compiling their Coq-generated Haskell source code using a Haskell compiler to produce an executable binary).
First, we need a type to represent procedures, which will be an inductive type proc after some preliminaries. This type is a generic model of sequential procedures, allowing chaining procedures together. We will implement some basic operations in Haskell to do I/O where needed and, using extraction, link our procedures with the Haskell primitives and run them.
At the lowest level, operations are implemented in terms of some machine primitives that we don't directly model. We group together the assumptions related to these primitives here, so that we can assume them in one go.
Alluding to the Haskell IO monad, which is where our procedures actually run, we call this model IO.Model.
Module IO.
  Inductive Model :=
    { baseOpT : Type -> Type;
      world : Type;
      world_crash : world -> world;
      base_step: forall T, baseOpT T -> world -> T -> world -> Prop;
End IO.

Axiom baseModel : IO.Model.
As a technical detail, we let procedures include arbitrary operations of types baseOpT T (which will produce a T-typed result). These will tell Coq that a proc can contain outside code that we don't care to represent here.
Definition baseOpT : Type -> Type := IO.baseOpT baseModel.
Our minimal, generic model of sequential procedures.
The only detail we expose about our opaque procedures is that it's possible to combine procedures together, using Ret and Bind. If you're familiar with Haskell, these are the same as return and (>>=) for the IO monad.
Procedures are parametrized by type T, which is the type of value that will be returned by the procedure. For example, a procedure that returns a nat has type proc nat, and a procedure that returns nothing ("void", in C terminology) has type proc unit.
As a technical detail, we include a constructor BaseOp to include arbitrary external operations. Without this constructor, Coq would think that every proc consists only of Ret and Bind and thus can't have side effects.
CoInductive proc (T : Type) : Type :=
| BaseOp (op : baseOpT T)
| Ret (v : T)
| Bind (T1 : Type) (p1 : proc T1) (p2 : T1 -> proc T).
Here we connect our definition of the procedure language, proc, to Haskell's built-in implementations of Bind and Ret, which are return and (>>=) respectively. We instruct Coq to extract any use of BaseOp to an error expression, since we do not expect any legitimate use of BaseOp in Gallina. We also instruct Coq to extract any attempts to pattern-match a procedure to an error, since we do not expect any legitimate code to pattern-match the contents of a proc procedure.
Require Extraction.
Extraction Language Haskell.

Extract Inductive proc => "Proc"
                           ["error 'accessing BaseOp'" "return" "(>>=)"]
                           "(\fprim fret fbind -> error 'pattern match on proc')".

Execution model.

Next, we define our model of execution.
The model will specify how Bind chains operations together. Importantly, our semantics will allow a proc to execute to a crashed state at any any intermediate point in its execution. Later we'll also bring recovery execution into this picture.
When we define how procedures execute, we will say they manipulate some state of this opaque type world. We won't ever define this type in Coq, but it will show up later to capture the idea that procedures move from one world state to another in sequence.
Definition world : Type := IO.world baseModel.
We start by defining the possible outcomes of executing a procedure proc T: either the procedure finishes and returns something of type T, or the procedure crashes. Because we are explicitly modeling the effect of procedures on the state of our system, both of these outcomes also include the resulting world state.
Inductive Result T :=
| Finished (v:T) (w:world)
| Crashed (w:world).

Arguments Crashed {T} w.
To define the execution of procedures, we need to state an axiom about how our opaque baseOpT primitives execute. This axiom is base_step. This is just another technicality.
Definition base_step : forall T, baseOpT T -> world -> T -> world -> Prop :=
  IO.base_step baseModel.
Finally, we define the exec relation to represent the execution semantics of a procedure, leveraging the step and world_crash definitions from above. The interpretation is that when exec p w r holds, procedure p when executed in state w can end up with the result r. Recall that the Result T type always includes the final world state, and includes a return value of type T if the execution finishes successfully without crashing.
Inductive exec : forall T, proc T -> world -> Result T -> Prop :=

(** There are three interesting aspects of this definition:

    - First, it defines how [Bind] and [Ret] work, in the [ExecRet]
      and [ExecBindFinished] constructors.

| ExecRet : forall T (v:T) w,
    exec (Ret v) w (Finished v w)
| ExecBindFinished : forall T T' (p: proc T) (p': T -> proc T')
                       w v w' r,
    exec p w (Finished v w') ->
    exec (p' v) w' r ->
    exec (Bind p p') w r

(** - Second, it incorporates the opaque way base operations step.

| ExecOp : forall T (op: baseOpT T) w v w',
    base_step op w v w' ->
    exec (BaseOp _ op) w (Finished v w')

(** - And finally, it defines how procedures can crash.  Any procedure
      can crash just before it starts running or just after it finishes.
      [Bind] can crash in the middle of running the first sub-procedure.
      Crashes during the second sub-procedure of a [Bind] are covered by
      the [ExecBindFinished] constructor above.

| ExecCrashBegin : forall T (p: proc T) w,
    exec p w (Crashed w)
| ExecCrashEnd : forall T (p: proc T) w v w',
    exec p w (Finished v w') ->
    exec p w (Crashed w')
| ExecBindCrashed : forall T T' (p: proc T) (p': T -> proc T')
                      w w',
    exec p w (Crashed w') ->
    exec (Bind p p') w (Crashed w').

Execution model with recovery

We also define a model of how our system executes procedures in the presence of recovery after a crash. What we want to model is a system that, after a crash, reboots and starts running some recovery procedure (like fsck in a Unix system to fix up the state of a file system). If the system crashes again while running the recovery procedure, it starts running the same recovery procedure again after reboot.
When we talk about recovery, we need to capture one more property of crashes. Above, a crash just stops execution. In practice, however, some parts of the state are volatile and are lost after a crash, such as memory contents or disk write buffers. Our model is that, on a crash, the world state is modified according to the opaque world_crash function, which we define as an axiom. This relation is meant to capture the computer losing volatile state, such as memory contents or disk write buffers.
Definition world_crash : world -> world := IO.world_crash baseModel.
Before we talk about the whole execution, we first just model executing the recovery procedure, including repeated attempts in the case of a crash during recovery. exec_recover rec w rv w' means the procedure rec can execute from w to w', ultimately returning rv (a "recovery value"), and possibly crashing and restarting multiple times along the way.
Inductive exec_recover R (rec:proc R) (w:world) : R -> world -> Prop :=

(** The first constructor, [ExecRecoverExec], says that if the recovery
    procedure [rec] executes and finishes normally, then that's a possible
    outcome for [exec_recover].

| ExecRecoverExec : forall v w',
    exec rec w (Finished v w') ->
    exec_recover rec w v w'

(** The second constructor, [ExecRecoverCrashDuringRecovery], allows repeated
    crashes by referring to [exec_recover] recursively. In between crashes, the
    world state is transformed according to [world_crash].

| ExecRecoverCrashDuringRecovery : forall w' v w'',
    exec rec w (Crashed w') ->
    exec_recover rec (world_crash w') v w'' ->
    exec_recover rec w v w''.

Chaining normal execution with recovery

RResult ("recovery result") is the outcome of running a procedure with recovery. It is similar to the Result type defined above, except that in the case of a crash, we run a recovery procedure and get both a final state and a return value from the recovery procedure.
Inductive RResult T R :=
| RFinished (v:T) (w:world)
| Recovered (v:R) (w:world).

Arguments RFinished {T R} v w.
Arguments Recovered {T R} v w.
Finally, rexec defines what it means to run a procedure and use some recovery procedure on crashes, including crashes during recovery. rexec says that:
Note that there is no recursion in this definition; it merely combines normal execution with crash execution followed by recovery execution, each of which is defined above.
Inductive rexec T R : proc T -> proc R -> world -> RResult T R -> Prop :=
| RExec : forall (p:proc T) (rec:proc R) w v w',
    exec p w (Finished v w') ->
    rexec p rec w (RFinished v w')
| RExecCrash : forall (p:proc T) (rec:proc R) w w' rv w'',
    exec p w (Crashed w') ->
    exec_recover rec (world_crash w') rv w'' ->
    rexec p rec w (Recovered rv w'').

Notation for composing procedures.

To help us write procedures in our proc language, we define the following Haskell-like notation for Bind. This allows us to say:

      x <- firstProcedure;
      secondProcedure (x+1)
to assign the result of firstProcedure to x, and then use x in an argument to secondProcedure. We can even use x inside of a Gallina expression before passing it to secondProcedure, such as adding 1 in the example above.
This notation does not permit silently discarding the return value of the first procedure. In order to run two procedures where the first one returns nothing (e.g., unit), or we want to otherwise ignore the result of the first procedure, we have to explicitly discard the return value by writing:

      _ <- firstProcedure;
Notation "x <- p1 ; p2" := (Bind p1 (fun x => p2))
                            (at level 60, right associativity).

Arguments Ret {T} v.